Why you should stop starting sentences with ‘and’ or ‘but’

The casual construction might be widely employed, but that doesn’t mean you should use it in business writing. Here’s why communicators should consider going a different way.

Don't start sentences with and or but.

Our esteemed colleague Russell Working recently opined about the editors’ firm opinion here at PR Daily and Ragan.com that sentences should rarely start with an “and” or a “but.”

Working, a fine writer and devilish intra-office email purveyor, wished that our editorial staff would ease up. After all, isn’t the insistence that no sentence should start with a conjunction a relic of our elementary school days?

Working isn’t alone; many grammar authorities side with him.

Mignon Fogarty, known to writers and other language enthusiasts as Grammar Girl, says the rule is something of a misconception.

She writes:

And, but, and or are the three most common members of a group of words known as coordinating conjunctions. The question about whether it’s grammatical to begin a sentence with and, but, or or is actually the question of whether it’s grammatical to begin a sentence with a coordinating conjunction. Here’s what some of the big usage guides say on the matter. The one that seems to get quoted the most is the Chicago Manual of Style, which says:

There is a widespread belief—one with no historical or grammatical foundation—that it is an error to begin a sentence with a conjunction such as and, but or so. In fact, a substantial percentage (often as many as 10 percent) of the sentences in first-rate writing begin with conjunctions. It has been so for centuries, and even the most conservative grammarians have followed this practice.

The widely followed AP Stylebook doesn’t prohibit the practice, either, though it does urge moderation.

It writes:

There’s no AP Stylebook rule against starting a sentence with a conjunction. And it works well in some instances. But don’t overuse it. Or readers will be annoyed.

Merriam-Webster also says the practice passes muster.

It writes:

Many people content themselves with the trusted maxim “do not begin sentences with and or but.” If you are interested in learning whether or not this is a sensible rule, well, it is not. And if you don’t much care whether the rule is sensible or not, and just want to keep telling people that they are wrong when they use certain words to begin their sentences, well, you are in luck, since there have been many more prohibitions against sentence-initial words than just and and but.

Firstly, has it ever been wrong to begin a sentence with and or but? No, it has not. We have been breaking this rule all the way from the 9th century Old English Chronicle through the current day. Many translations of the Bible are filled with sentence-initial ands and buts, and they even may be found in some of our more beloved—and prescriptive—usage guides. The 1959 edition of Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style begins two sentences in a row with these prohibited words, and does so with nary a trace of self-consciousness.

There are some instances where beginning a sentence with a conjunction is helpful, according to Grammarist.

It writes:

There are many reasons to start a sentence with a coordinating conjunction (as far as we know, nobody questions the use of subordinating and correlative conjunctions to start sentences). For instance, sometimes it helps create the tone of an afterthought or a second guess—e.g., “I think I’ll go to the store. Or maybe I’ll just stay home.” Sometimes it helps create a smoother transition between sentences—e.g., “If you don’t like conjunctions at the beginnings of sentences, then don’t use them. And if you don’t mind them, then don’t worry about it.” Sometimes it helps move an argument or narrative forward—e.g., “When he went to bed that night, he was human. So he was surprised to wake up the next morning with paws instead of hands.” Sometimes sentence-beginning conjunctions just sound right. Fluent English speakers need not question their instincts on this.

As with many longstanding English myths, there are people who feel strongly about this one. But there is no reason to appease these people in this case—except perhaps when they happen to be our teachers or bosses—as this myth is especially useless, and the sooner it’s forgotten, the better.

A different kind of writing

However, as a communicator your job is to help the reader and succinctly provide clear and relevant information. The poet might hope for her words to be reread and studied; your blog is barely getting scanned.

That means your use of conjunctions should be judicious, and putting them at the beginning of your sentence is at least a questionable practice.

Consider the purpose of a conjunction. By necessity, the word is joining your subsequent sentence to a previous thought. However, with a period you told the reader it was OK to move on from the previous sentence—no need to keep holding on to it.

For example:

It is essential to fully research a potential influencer before making a deal to represent your product.

And, that research is easy to do.

Though the syntax might be grammatically correct, it is an indication that your overall construction is poor.  Why is the research easy? What is significant about the task?

Consider instead:

It is essential to fully research a potential influencer—an easy task with Google—before making a deal to represent your product.

Sometimes the desire to start a sentence with a conjunction stems from the desire to keep sentences short. In the internet age, you’ve been told that your reader has the attention span of an adolescent goldfish, so you’d better keep it short.

It’s not that simple.

Though a short phrase can serve as a powerful punchline or solemn finish to your writing, sometimes a thought takes a while to express cogently. Take the time to phrase your idea, and ignore the algorithm that says your sentences are too long for some “readability score.”

You are writing for humans, not robots.

Last, plenty of people believe starting a sentence with a conjunction is poor grammar—at best a sentence fragment, and at worst the construction of an undereducated, ill-organized mind. However, you might want to educate your adversaries on the errors of their ways, most communicators don’t have the time, much less the inclination to be “schooled.”

Instead, ditch a construction that many find abhorrent, and thereby avoid turning off readers who might otherwise enjoy your message. It’s a simple enough step, and you can write poems on your own time.


3 Responses to “Why you should stop starting sentences with ‘and’ or ‘but’”

    Jason says:

    While I appreciate the author’s extensive background on the false belief that there is a rule stating one should not start a sentence with a conjunction, I do not agree with his opinion that one should not do it.

    Probably the biggest issue is audience. Are you writing for a group of consumers who may not have the best reading comprehension skills? Or, are you writing to a group of college professors? Sentence structure totally depends on the understanding the audience. It depends on the audience and the voice you want to convey to the reader. A friendly, conversant tone is the perfect opportunity to use the conjunction at the start of the sentence.

    However, one should do it sparingly.

    Ted Kitterman says:

    I would contend that using a conjunction to start your sentences just to sound folksy or conversational is bad writing. By all means, do it sparingly if you wish, but compound sentences are often more appropriate and the conjunction usually adds nothing to you sentence.
    This is of course for technical and corporate writing. If you’re a screenwriter, you can break whatever rules you want.

    Jason says:

    Absolutely, for technical and corporate writing, one shouldn’t start a sentence with a conjunction. However, I think it is acceptable in many other forms of writing.

    In essence, when one starts a sentence with “But” or “And,” he or she could replace either word with other choices. “However” works well for “But,” and “Plus” or “Additionally” both work for “And.” Again, I think a lot of it depends on the audience you’re writing for. Would I start a sentence with a conjunction if I were writing to the CEO of a company? No. Would I use it in a blog post to a large group of readers with a wide span of reading ability? Yes.

    It’s not bad writing to start a sentence with a conjunction to make it seem conversational. It’s good writing if it’s done well and shows you know your audience.

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