In conversation, it’s easy in the midst of spontaneous speech to succumb to verbosity and duplication. In writing, redundancy is less forgivable but fortunately easy to rectify. Watch for these usual suspects:
1. Absolutely certain or sure/essential/guaranteed: Someone who is certain or sure is already without doubt. Something that is essential is intrinsically absolute. A guarantee is by nature absolute (or should be). Abandon absolutely in such usage.
2. Actual experience/fact: An experience is something that occurred (unless otherwise indicated). A fact is something confirmed to have happened. Actual is extraneous in these instances.
3. Add an additional: To add is to provide another of something. Additional is extraneous.
4. Added bonus: A bonus is an extra feature, so added is redundant.
5. Advance notice/planning/reservations/warning: Notices, planning, reservations, and warnings are all, by their nature, actions that occur before some event, so qualifying such terms with advance is superfluous.
6. As for example: As implies that an example is being provided, so omit for example.
7. Ask a question: To ask is to pose a question, so a question is redundant.
8. At the present time: At present means “at this time,” so avoid the verbose version.
9. Basic fundamentals/essentials: Fundamentals and essentials are by their nature elementary, so remove basic from each phrase.
10. (Filled to) capacity: Something filled is done so to capacity, so describing something as filled to capacity is repetitive.
11. Came at a time when: When provides the necessary temporal reference to the action of coming; at a time is redundant.
12. Close proximity/scrutiny: Proximity means “close in location,” and scrutiny means “close study,” so avoid qualifying these terms with close.
13. Collaborate/join/meet/merge together: If you write of a group that collaborates or meets together, you imply that there’s another way to collect or confer. To speak of joining or merging together is, likewise, redundant.
14. Completely filled/finished/opposite: Something that is filled or finished is thoroughly so; completely is redundant. Something that is opposite isn’t necessarily diametrically opposed, especially in qualitative connotations, but the modifier is still extraneous.
15. Consensus of opinion: A consensus is an agreement but not necessarily one about an opinion, so consensus of opinion is not purely redundant, but the phrase of opinion is usually unnecessary.
16. During the course of: During means “in or throughout the duration of,” so during the course of is repetitive.
17. Definite decision: Decisions may not be final, but when they are made, they are unequivocal and therefore definite, so one should not be described as a definite decision.
18. Difficult dilemma: A dilemma is by nature complicated, so omit difficult as a modifier.
19. Direct confrontation: A confrontation is a head-on conflict. Direct as a qualifier in this case is redundant.
20. End result: A result is something that occurs at the end, so omit end as a modifier of result.
21. Enter in: To enter is to go in, so throw in out.
22. Estimated at about/roughly: An estimate is an approximation. About and roughly are superfluous.
23. False pretense: A pretense is a deception, so false is redundant.
24. Few in number: Few refers to a small number; do not qualify few with the modifier in number.
25. Final outcome: An outcome is a result and is therefore intrinsically final.
26. First began, new beginning: A beginning is when something first occurs, so first and new are superfluous terms in these cases.
27. For a period/number of days: Days is plural, so a duration is implied; a period of or a number of is redundant. It’s better to specify the number of days or to generalize with “many.”
28. Foreign imports: Imports are products that originate in another country, so their foreign nature is implicit and the word foreign is redundant.
29. Forever and ever: Ever is an unnecessary reduplication of forever.
30. Free gift: A gift is by definition free (though cynics will dispute that definition), so free is extraneous.
31. Invited guests: Guests are intrinsically those who have an invitation, so invited is redundant.
32. Major breakthrough: A breakthrough is a significant progress in an effort. Though major is not directly redundant, the notable nature of the event is implicit.
33. [Number] a.m. in the morning/p.m. in the evening: The abbreviations a.m. and p.m. already identify the time of day, so omit in the morning or in the evening.
34. Past history/record: A history is by definition a record of past occurrences, and a record is documentation of what has already happened. In both cases, past is redundant.
35. Plan ahead: To plan is to prepare for the future. Ahead is extraneous.
36. Possibly might: Might indicates probability, so omit the redundant qualifier possibly.
37. Postpone until later: To postpone is to delay. Later is superfluous.
38. Protest against: To protest is to communicate opposition. Against is redundant.
39. Repeat again: To repeat is to reiterate an action, so again is unnecessary.
40. Revert back: Something that reverts returns to an earlier state. Back is superfluous.
41. Same identical: Same and identical are just that (and that). Omit same as a qualifier for identical.
42. Since the time when: Since indicates a time in the past; the time when is superfluous.
43. Spell out in detail: To spell out is to provide details, so in detail is repetitive.
44. Still remains: Something that remains is still in place. Still is redundant.
45. Suddenly exploded: An explosion is an immediate event. It cannot be any more sudden than it is.
46. Therapeutic treatment: Treatment in the sense of medical care is by nature therapeutic, so the adjective is redundant.
47. Unexpected surprise: No surprise is expected, so the modifier is extraneous.
48. Unintended mistake: A mistake is an inadvertently erroneous action. The lack of intention is implicit.
49. Usual custom: A custom is something routinely and repeatedly done or observed, and usual is redundant.
50. Written down: Something written has been taken down. Down is superfluous.
A version of this article originally ran on DailyWritingTips.com.